Friday, August 21, 2009

FDC from Mauritius/FDC du Maurice

24th summit SADC/24ème sommet SADC

The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Gaborone, Botswana. Its goal is to further socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among 15 southern African states. It complements the role of the African Union.

The origins of SADC lie in the 1960s and 1970s, when the leaders of majority-ruled countries and national liberation movements coordinated their political, diplomatic and military struggles to bring an end to colonial and white-minority rule in southern Africa. The immediate forerunner of the political and security cooperation leg of today's SADC was the informal Front Line States (FLS) grouping. It was formed in 1980.

The Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was the forerunner of the socio-economic cooperation leg of today's SADC. The adoption by nine majority-ruled southern African countries of the Lusaka declaration on 1 April 1980 paved the way for the formal establishment of SADCC in April 1980.

Membership of the FLS and SADCC sometimes differed.

SADCC was transformed into SADC on 17 August 1992, with the adoption by the founding members of SADCC and newly independent Namibia of the Windhoek declaration and treaty establishing SADC. The 1992 SADC provided for both socio-economic cooperation and political and security cooperation. In reality, the FLS was dissolved only in 1994, after South Africa's first democratic elections. Subsequent efforts to place political and security cooperation on a firm institutional footing under SADC's umbrella failed.

On 14 August 2001, the 1992 SADC treaty was amended. The amendment heralded the overhaul of the structures, policies and procedures of SADC, a process which is ongoing. One of the changes is that political and security cooperation is institutionalised in the Organ on Politics, Defence and Security (OPDS). One of the principal SADC bodies, it is subject to the oversight of the organisation's supreme body, the Summit, which comprises the heads of state or government.

In 2008, the SADC agreed to establish a free trade zone with the East African Community (EAC) and the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) including all members of each of the organizations.

Since 2000 began the formation of the SADC Free trade area with the participation of the SACU countries (South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland). Next to join were Mauritius, Zimbabwe, and Madagascar. In 2008 joined Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia bringing the total number of SADC FTA members to 12. Angola, DR Congo and Seychelles are not yet participating.

Friday, August 14, 2009

FDC from Russia/FDC de la russie

Birth Bicentenary of Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol/
Bicentenaire de Naissance de Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol

Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (Russian: Никола́й Васи́льевич Го́голь, Nikolaj Vasil'evič Gogol' ; Ukrainian: Мико́ла Васи́льович Го́голь, Mykola Vasylovych Hohol) (31 March [O.S. 19 March] 1809,– 4 March [O.S. 21 February] 1852) was a Ukrainian-born Russian novelist, humorist, and dramatist.[1] His early works, such as Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka, were heavily influenced by his Ukrainian upbringing and identity.

He is considered the father of modern Russian realism. His writing satirised the corrupt bureaucracy of the Russian Empire, leading to his exile. On his return, he immersed himself in the Orthodox Church.[4] The novels Taras Bul'ba (1835; 1842) and Dead Souls (1842), the play The Inspector-General (1836, 1842), and the short stories Diary of a Madman, The Nose and The Overcoat (1842) are among his best known works. With their scrupulous and scathing realism, ethical criticism as well as philosophical depth, they remain some of the most important works of world literature.

Sunday, August 9, 2009

FDC from Russia/FDC de la russie

75th Birth Anniversary of Yuri. A. Gagarin/
75ème Anniversaire de Naissance d'Yuri. A. Gagarin.

Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian: Ю́рий Алексе́евич Гага́рин) (9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968), Hero of the Soviet Union, was a Soviet cosmonaut. On 12 April 1961, he became the first human in outer space and the first to orbit the Earth. He received medals from around the world for his pioneering tour in space.

Yuri Gagarin was born in the village of Klushino near Gzhatsk (now in Smolensk Oblast, Russia), on 9 March 1934. The adjacent town of Gzhatsk was renamed Gagarin in 1968 in his honour. His parents, Alexey Ivanovich Gagarin and Anna Timofeyevna Gagarina, worked on a collective farm.While manual labourers are described in official reports as "peasants", this may be an oversimplification if applied to his parents — his mother was reportedly a voracious reader, and his father a skilled carpenter. Yuri was the third of four children, and his elder sister helped raise him while his parents worked. Like millions of people in the Soviet Union, the Gagarin family suffered during Nazi occupation in World War II. His two elder siblings were sent to Germany as slave labourers in 1943, and did not return until after the war. While a youth, Yuri became interested in space and planets, and began to dream about his space tour which would one day become a reality.Yuri was described by his teachers in the Moscow satellite town of Lyubertsy as intelligent and hard-working, if occasionally mischievous. His mathematics and science teacher had flown in the Soviet Air Forces during the war, which presumably made some substantial impression on young Gagarin.

After starting an apprenticeship in a metalworks as a foundryman, Gagarin was selected for further training at a technical high school in Saratov. While there, he joined the "AeroClub", and learned to fly a light aircraft, a hobby that would take up an increasing proportion of his time. By dint of effort, rather than brilliance, he reportedly mastered both; in 1955, after completing his technical schooling, he entered military flight training at the Orenburg Pilot's School. While there he met Valentina Goryacheva, whom he married in 1957, after gaining his pilot's wings in a MiG-15. Post-graduation, he was assigned to Luostari airbase in Murmansk Oblast, close to the Norwegian border, where terrible weather made flying risky. As a full-grown man, Gagarin was 1.57 metres (5 ft 2 in) tall, which was an advantage in the small Vostok cockpit.He became Lieutenant of the Soviet Air Force on 5 November 1957 and on 6 November 1959 he received the rank of Senior Lieutenant.

In 1960, after the search and selection process, Yuri Gagarin was selected with 19 other cosmonauts for the Soviet space program. Along with the other prospective cosmonauts, he was subjected to experiments designed to test his physical and psychological endurance; he also underwent training for the upcoming flight. Out of the twenty selected, the eventual choices for the first launch were Gagarin and Gherman Titov because of their performance in training, as well as their physical characteristics — space was at a premium in the small Vostok cockpit and both men were rather short.

On 12 April 1961, Gagarin became the first human to travel into space, launching to orbit aboard the Vostok 3KA-2 (Vostok 1). His call sign in this flight was Kedr (Cedar; Russian: Кедр).During his flight, Gagarin famously whistled the tune "The Motherland Hears, The Motherland Knows" (Russian: "Родина слышит, Родина знает"). The first two lines of the song are: "The Motherland hears, the Motherland knows/Where her son flies in the sky". This patriotic song was written by Dmitri Shostakovich in 1951 (opus 86), with words by Yevgeniy Dolmatovsky.

Around the same time, some Western sources claimed that Gagarin, during his space flight, had made the comment, "I don't see any God up here." However, no such words appear in the verbatim record of Gagarin's conversations with the Earth during the spaceflight.In a 2006 interview a close friend of Gagarin, Colonel Valentin Petrov, stated that Gagarin never said such words, and that the phrase originated from Nikita Khrushchev's speech at the plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU, where the anti-religious propaganda was discussed. In a certain context Khrushchev said, "Gagarin flew into space, but didn't see any God there".Colonel Petrov also said that Gagarin had been baptised into the Orthodox Church as a child.

After the flight, Gagarin became a worldwide celebrity, touring widely with appearances in Italy, Great Britain, Germany, Canada, and Japan to promote the Soviet achievement.

In 1962, he began serving as a deputy to the Supreme Soviet. He later returned to Star City, the cosmonaut facility, where he worked on designs for a reusable spacecraft. Gagarin worked on these designs in Star City for 7 years. Gagarin became Lieutenant Colonel (or Podpolkovnik) of the Soviet Air Force on 12 June 1962 and on 6 November 1963 he received the rank of Colonel (Polkovnik) of the Soviet Air Force.Soviet officials tried to keep him away from any flights, being worried of losing their hero in an accident. Gagarin was backup pilot for Vladimir Komarov in the Soyuz 1 flight. As Komarov's flight ended in a fatal crash, Gagarin was ultimately banned from training for and participating in further spaceflights.

Thursday, August 6, 2009

FDC from Vietnam/FDC du Vietnam

Rhododendron/Le rhododendron

Rhododendron (from the Greek: rhodos, "rose", and dendron, "tree") is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ercaceae.

It is a large genus with over 1000 species which very rich variety of types, sizes and colors. They are only natural distribution in high mountain areas, where climate is cool.

In the world, Rhododendron is a very widely distributed genus, occurring throughout most of Northern America in temperate zone, extending into the highland of Asia-Euro-Eastern Asia and with other significant areas of diversity in Japan and North Korea. Rhododendrons have not been found in South America or Africa.

In Viet Nam, Rhododendrons occur in Tam Dao, Bạch Mã, Bà Nà National Park and many species diversity in Đà Lạt. The highest species diversity is found in Sapa.- Hoàng Liên National Park that is considered as one of the biggest Rhododendron Garden with 32 species of ericaceous.

Rhododendrons with its tender fineness are used extensively as ornamental plants in landscaping in many parts of the world.

It is the National Flower of Nepal and also the State Flower of West Virginia and Washington in America.

On the First of August 2009, the Ministry of Information and Communications (MIC) specially issues the stampset: Rhododendrons consisting of 04 values with their denominations of 500d; 1,200d; 4,500d and 14,500d.

The stampset shows the four typical species of Rhododendron in Vietnam.

- Value 4-1: denomination of 500d - Rhododendron fortunei Lindl.

- Value 4-2: denomination of 1,200d - Rhododendron simsii Planch.

- Value 4-3: denomination of 4,500d - Rhododendron sp.

- Value 4-4: denomination of 14,500d - Enkianthus quinqueflorus Lour.

Monday, August 3, 2009

FDC from Belarus/FDC du Bélarus

65th liberation anniversary of Belarus from German fascist invaders./
Le 65ème anniversaire de libération de la Bélarus des envahisseurs fascistes allemands.

On June 26, 2009 the Ministry of Communications and Informatization of the Republic of Belarus
will issue a souvenir sheet “60th liberation anniversary of Belarus from German fascist invaders”.